The measurement of intra-ocular pressure (pressure within the eye) is an important element in the detection of glaucoma. Historically doctors have accepted eye pressure values directly. It is now understood … Read more


Papilledema is an ocular condition that causes swelling of the optic nerve. It is commonly bilateral, affecting both eyes, affects both sexes equally, can occur at any age, and is … Read more

People Who Have Alzheimer’s Disease or Who Are at Risk: Better Testing

Contents 1 People Who Have Alzheimer’s Disease or Who Are at Risk: Better Testing 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Simpler and Less Expensive 1.3 Immediate Results 1.4 Summing Up People Who Have … Read more

Photorefractive Keratectomy

Contents 1 Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) 2 Before the Procedure 3 During the Procedure 4 Following the Procedure Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) involves the removal of the top surface … Read more

Pigment Dispersion Syndrome

Pigment Dispersion Syndrome Pigment Dispersion Syndrome occurs only in certain people – generally white nearsighted males between 20-50… Think of your iris – the coloured part of your eye – … Read more

Pigmentary Glaucoma

Pigmentary Glaucoma: The Metaphor of The Bathroom Sink A bathroom sink is a good way to illustrate the mechanics of pigmentary glaucoma. Just as the sink drain can become clogged … Read more


Contents 1 Pinguecula 1.1 Symptoms 1.2 Treatment 1.3 Diagnosis Codes Pinguecula A pinguecula (pin-gwek-u-la) is a benign, yellowish-whitish nodule or small plaque that develops on the conjunctiva, the clear skin … Read more

Plaquenil Maculopathy

Plaquenil Maculopathy Plaquenil is an anti-inflammatory medication which helps reduce pain stiffness and swelling in the joints. Sometimes medications prescribed for certain conditions can have adverse effects on other parts … Read more

Possible Laser Surgery Complications

Contents 1 Complications of Laser Surgery 2 Refractive Complications 3 Infection 4 Regression 5 Poor Night Vision 6 Dry Eye 7 Loss of Best Corrected Vision 8 LASIK and Corneal … Read more

Pregnancy and Your Vision

Contents 1 Pregnancy and Your Vision 2 Contact Lenses in Pregnancy 3 Dry Eyes 4 Serious Health Issues 5 Best Wishes 6 Diagnosis Codes Pregnancy and Your Vision Along with … Read more

Premium IOL’s

Contents 1 CATARACT & PREMIUM IOL’s 2 Aspheric Design IOL’s 3 Blue Blocking / Aspheric IOL’s 4 Diagnosis Codes CATARACT & PREMIUM IOL’s A cataract is a clouding of the … Read more


Presbyopia Presbyopia (>pres-be-O-pe-ah) is a vision condition caused by the aging of the eye. It affects nearly everyone by the age of 50. The Crystalline lens of the eye thickens … Read more

Presbyopia: What is it, and What are the Options?

Contents 1 Presbyopia: What is it, and What are the Options? 1.1 Progressive Lenses 1.2 Single Vision Reading Lenses 1.3 Multifocals: Bifocals and Trifocals 1.4 Trifocals 1.5 Presbyopia is Natural … Read more

Preventing AMD Through Nutrition

Contents 1 Preventing AMD Through Nutrition 2 Overview 3 Antioxidants & Zinc 4 Exact Dosages (from AREDS study) 5 Dietary Fats 6 Possible Side Effects of Nutritional Supplements 7 Diagnosis … Read more

Progressive Lenses

Contents 1 Progressive Lenses 2 Progressive Changes 3 Progressive Technology 4 Progressive Results 5 Diagnostic Codes Progressive Lenses When we begin to need extra help reading fine print or using … Read more

Protecting Your Eyes During Winter

Protecting Your Eyes During Winter Prolonged exposure can take its toll on you as you age Just like you have to wear sunglasses in the blazing heat of a summer … Read more

Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome The main problem with pseudoexfoliation is that there is a build-up of flaky material in the angle between the cornea and iris… Most people associate the term “exfoliation” … Read more


Contents 1 Pterygium 1.1 Signs and symptoms 1.2 Treatment 1.3 Diagnosis Codes Pterygium A pterygium (turr-i-gee-um) is a benign triangular-shaped growth or plaque that usually arises in the nasal corner … Read more

Ptosis (Drooping Eyelid)

Contents 1 Ptosis (Drooping Eyelid) 2 What Causes Ptosis? 3 Treatment 4 What Are the Risks of Surgery? 5 Outcome 6 Diagnosis Codes Ptosis (Drooping Eyelid) Gravity loss of elastic … Read more

Punctal Plugs

Punctal Plugs The entire in-office procedure is painless and usually takes only a few minutes. As strange as it sounds just picture a healthy eye as a full sink with … Read more

Pupil Dilation

Dilation Dilating eyedrops are used for your own benefit to certify that nothing is left undiscovered during your eye examination. Most of us are not even aware that our pupils … Read more